URBANIZATION IN INDIA:
|(A) MUNICIPAL CORPORATION||01|
|(B) NAGAR PALIKA PARISHAD||31|
|(C) NAGAR PANCHAYAT||31|
|(D) CANTONMENT BOARDS||09|
|(E) CENSUS TOWNS||12|
|(F) INDUSTRIAL TOWNSHIP||02|
|S. No.||DISTRICT||TOTAL POPULATION||URBAN POPULATION|
TOTAL STATE POPULATION - 8489349 (YR. 2000- 2001)
TOTAL RURAL POPULATION-6310275 (74.3% OF TOTAL POPULATION)
TOTAL URBAN POPULATION-2179074 (25.7% OF TOTAL POPULATION)
TOTAL FLOATING POPULATION OF STATE DURING TOURIST SEASON (2000-2001) 1, 11, 35,580
PATTERN OF POPULATION GROWTH (1991-2001)
|Population||Nagar Nigam||Nagarpalika Parishad||Nagar Panchayats|
|Overall growth rate
|Nagarpalika Parishads||Nagar Panchayats|
Localities with negative population growth rates (1991-2001)
Uttarakhand is the rural centered state, presently facing rapid pace of urbanization especially in the popular Districts like- Dehradun, Nainital, Haridwar & Udham Singh Nagar. The state has few old urban settlements like- Dehradun, Nainital & Mussoorie which is moreover covered by the rural settlements. In Uttarakhand total number of Urban Settlements/ Agglomerations â€“ 86 (63- Towns, 9 Cantonment Areas, 2- Industrial Townships and 12 Census Towns). Out of 63 towns, Dehradun is the only Municipal Corporation and rest 31 Nagar Palika Parishad & 31 Nagar Panchayats (now 01 Nagar Panchayat is upgraded as Nagar Palika Parishad in the year 2008 during IInd Municipal Elections of the state representing 32 Nagar Palika Parishad & 29 Nagar Panchayats) are in the existence. Because of Hilly State, most of the towns are topographically hilly in nature.
The history gives the evidence of urbanization in Uttarakhand. These towns were originally rural settlements converted into towns in the later stages. The basic reason behind this is the tourism because the state is the heart of famous pilgrimages. Originally these small towns were the stoppage centres of the pilgrims during â€œYatra Seasonâ€. Slowly because of number of commercial activities, these stoppage places developed into the small towns, small to medium town. These town/cities converted into mega cities in later stage. This is being the regular pattern of urban development in the state. Few cities settled because of some natural calamities for example â€“ Gopeshwar because of the flood in Alakhnanda River. In this way the urban development occurred in Uttarakhand significantly in unplanned manner which results lack of civic amenities according to the population density. Population pressure on the cities not only causing unavoidable burden on the available infrastructure facilities but also hinders the social and economic development process of the cities. On the other side of coin tourism is contributing much in the state's economy. Cities are now become the hub of capitalization of the state as well. Thus the urban growth in Uttarakhand is affecting both positively & negatively.
Unplanned development, together with rapid urban growth and the inflow of tourists and pilgrims has made critical impacts on the urban environment of Uttarakhand. Most of the towns in Uttarakhand have grown in an unplanned manner causing immense pressure on the urban infrastructure and services resulting in degradation of the urban environment and of natural resources. Major environmental concerns associated with such unplanned urban development are depletion of forest area, loss of bio-diversity, potential urban pollution in the form of air, water, noise, solid and liquid waste discharges and landslide. Some of the major rivers which are drinking and irrigation water sources for the states downstream of Uttarakhand, as well as being of religious significance are silted and polluted due to the unplanned urban development and industrial activities. These rivers also act as major drainage outlets for the towns, and are often used as a convenient means of solid waste disposal. Lakes and water bodies which are also attraction for tourists are polluted due to uncontrolled discharge of wastewater and disposal of solid wastes.
There is a need to assess and examine the root cause of the problems and identify the strength of the state by means of balanced systematic planning in consensus with Urban Local Bodies and Citizens of the native towns to get rid of all these issues.